Greece (Page 2)
Through his conquests, Philip's son, Alexander the Great, extended Greek civilization over the known Western world and across Asia to India. After his death (323 BC) his empire was divided by disputes among his generals.
Incessant internecine warfare further weakened Greece and it was made a Roman province (146 BC). Its culture continued to spread throughout the Near East and greatly influenced Rome (Hellenism).
When the Roman Empire was divided (396 AD), Greece became a province of the Byzantine Empire until it was divided into Latin Crusader Kingdoms (1204). It was conquered by the Turks (1466) and remained under Turkish rule until the successful Greek War of Independence (1821-30). A monarchy was established (1832) under Otto of Bavaria, who abdicated (1862) and was succeeded by George I (1863).
Greece continued to absorb Turkish land Thessaly (1878), Crete, Macedonia, Epirus and most of the Turkish Islands after the Balkan Wars (1912-13), and Thrace and part of northwestern Asia Minor after the First World War, in which Greece after the deposition (1917) of pro-German King Constantine I, had fought on the Allied aide. Greece lost its Asian territories in wars with Turkey (1921-3).
Greek borders were finally settled with large shifts of minority populations. After the exile (1924) of George II, monarchists and republicans struggled for power and Metaxas finally established a dictatorship (1936). After an unsuccessful Italian invasion (1940), Greece was occupied (1941) by the Germans. Resistance continued until the liberation (1944), when the pro-communist guerrilla army (E.L.A.S.) was not permitted to take power by British and American intervention though not finally shattered until 1949.
A limited monarchy was restored (1948) under George II succeeded by his brother Paul (1947). Greece joined NATO (1952) and has benefited from American aid. The army seized power (Apr. 21, 1967); King Constantine called (Dec. 13, 1967) upon army units to overthrow the military junta, failed and went into exile. A republic was proclaimed in 1973 but a military dictatorship was in power until the following year when democracy was re-established under Karamanlis.
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Sources: (1) Ancient Greece (The British Museum); (2) Ancient Greece (ancientgreece.com).
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