A Magic Square is a square array of numbers with the property that the sum of each row, each column, and each diagonal is the same.
Magic Squares have been found in ancient writings from many parts of the world, and in some cultures they were thought to possess magical or supernatural powers.
Medieval and classical numerologists and magicians used magic squares in the making of talismans. Magic Squares are also used to facilitate summoning spirits and/or demons, or to afford protection against them.
A n-by-n magic square (magic square of order n) contains n rows and n columns of numbers, which make up its n x n (n squared) elements. A magic square remains a magic square if the same number is added to each element or if each element is multiplied by the same number. Adding corresponding elements of two magic squares produces another magic square.
There are seven traditional magic squares. Each one represents a planet or deity and each has particular attributes, and are traditionally made in certain colors and according to intricate rituals. They are:
The Square of Saturn
The Square of Jupiter
The Square of Mars
The Square of the Sun
The Square of Venus
The Square of Mercury
The Square of the Moon
The Hebrews, Arabs and Chinese have employed magical squares since time immemorial, chiefly in numerology based calculations and prognostications.
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Sources: (1) Spence, Lewis, An Encyclopedia of Occultism, Carol Publishing Group; (2) Randi, James, An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural, St. Martin's Griffin; (3) The Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition Handy Volume Edition, Oxford University Press; (4) Bailey, Nancy, (Editor), The Little Giant Encyclopedia of Spells and Magic, Sterling Publishing.
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